Abstract:Equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) has been shown to be a promising method for producing biocomposites from wood particles. However, severe plastic deformation during ECAP would cause considerable cracking when consolidation is carried out without a binder. In this study, the processing conditions were investigated for ECAP of hardwood particles into bulk biocomposites without any additives. Crack formation and wood cell deformation were examined in conjunction with thermal stability and crystallinity of the biocomposites. In comparison with hot pressing without severe shearing, a decrease in crystallinity and severe deformation of wood cells occurred during ECAP. Improved processability and homogeneous deformation would occur at high ECAP temperature (e.g., 210 °C) or low ECAP speed (e.g., 10 mm/min), leading to reduced crack formation in the ECAP-produced biocomposites. Despite its tendency to cause periodic cracking, effective plastic deformation in the regions between cracks was shown to improve interparticle binding. Ongoing research points to the potential achievement of crack-free hardwood (HW) consolidated without a binder, leading to significantly enhanced strength.Keywords: biocomposites; hardwood particles; equal channel angular pressing (ECAP); severe plastic deformation
In recent years, domestic and foreign scholars have obtained research results on the mechanical properties and deterioration characteristics of geotechnical materials [4,5]. Soil sites have been found to be susceptible to erosion by the natural environment, and a large number of cracks are commonly developed on the surface, of which dry shrinkage is a common influencing factor . However, the mechanical mechanism of cracking caused by dry water loss in soils has not been consistently investigated . It is generally believed that the suction force generated by the drying process causes the soil to shrink, and when the shrinkage deformation is restricted, tensile stress will be generated inside the soil, and when the tensile stress exceeds the tensile strength of the soil, cracks will be created . Zhang et al.  analyzed three crack characterization parameters, crack width, depth and surface crack area rate, using iodine-starch staining tracer tests combined with digital image processing techniques. Jia et al.  used molecular dynamics to simulate the deformation and cracking process of nanoclay particles under water impact, and found that the shedding of SiO2 tetrahedral units led to cracks or holes, which also provided a molecular explanation for the microscopic mechanism and process of rupture of geotechnical materials. Wu et al.  conducted evaporation tests on clay soils while monitoring shrinkage cracking and hygrothermal evolution, and found that the large difference in suction between the topsoil and the deep soil is an important reason for the uneven shrinkage of the soil at different depths. Xu et al.  applied fracture mechanics methods to analyze the formation and evolution of fractures, and to determine if and when soils rupture. Tang et al.  quantified microcrack parameters based on the digital image method and explained cracking mechanisms, such as sprouting, extension, bifurcation and merging of cracks. Most of the past studies have focused on the analysis of cracking evolution patterns of soils [14,15,16], and few scholars have conducted dry shrinkage tests in conjunction with changes in moisture content, suction, temperature and cracking .
The disadvantages associated with plasma-spraying of ceramic coatings are the rapid solidification of the flight particles and thermal stresses which propagate microcracks within the coatings and limit the coating thickness to a few hundred microns. Moreover, the pores initiated from unmelted and semi-melted particles cause defects in the thermal spray coatings. In addition, exposed metallic oxide powders can undergo phase changes, as in the case of the phase transition of plasma-sprayed Al2O3 to Al2O3 [8,9] due to the difficulty of nucleating stable -phase  under the rapid solidification rate associated with the plasma spraying process.
The PS alumina coating of thickness 500 - 600 m has lamella structure (Figure 1) formed by accumulation of molten alumina particles. The microstructure reveals the different coating defects such as pores, micro-cracks, and non-/semi-molten particles (white angular dots). The coating is well-adhered to the steel surface as there are no cracks observed at the interface.
Fabre and Pellet  carried out creep experiments on argillaceous rocks under a variety of stress environments and found that the overall mechanical properties of argillaceous rocks deteriorated rapidly when the cracks propagated unsteadily, and the creep of clay particles caused viscoplastic strain. Brantut et al.  proposed a micromechanical model that could describe the brittle creep of saturated rock under triaxial stress with time and studied the micromechanics of brittle creep. Davis et al.  carried out triaxial compression experiments on dolomites with different particle sizes under variable temperature conditions and revealed the differences of creep mechanism between coarse-grained dolomites and fine-grained dolomites with different grain sizes. Smit et al.  studied the structure and microstructure of garnet polycrystals in eclogites and analyzed the creep mechanism of garnet in eclogites by using optical microscopy, element mapping, and electron backscatter diffraction. Rybacki and Dresen  carried out creep experiments on plagioclase samples under dry and wet conditions and determined two different creep mechanisms of dry and wet plagioclase. Heap et al.  studied the creep mechanism of pore water in sandstone by using microstructure analysis, acoustic emission source location, and macroscopic creep law. Brückl and Parotidis  analyzed the deep creep mechanism of slope rock mass with simulation study and pointed out that the main factor controlling the deep creep mechanism was the expansion of subcritical cracks. Bresser  obtained the pressure sensitivity and strain rate sensitivity of flow stress through experiments and revealed the creep mechanism of calcite dislocation at high temperature based on the experimental data of microphysical model. Gratier et al.  carried out indentation experiments on quartz crystals, which provided characteristic time scales for the transient creep and sealing processes of quartz-rich rocks after earthquakes. 2b1af7f3a8