Oranchak said he has been working on and off on solving the 340 since 2006. The other two men on the team are Sam Blake, an applied mathematician who lives in Australia, and Jarl Van Eycke, a warehouse operator in Belgium. Van Eycke is also the software developer behind the AZdecrypt, a code-breaking app that was inspired by his drive to crack the 340.
This is a reference to the 16-volume OSA history which has also been FOIA'd (by the NSArchive). The CIA historian told me last year that its release was not pending, due to "multiple equities" and other complications. The authors are now confirmed as Helen Kleyla (RMB's secretary) and Robert O'Hern (who was he?).
Citing the OSA mission folder, the W/P text claims that the U-2 shot down near Nanchang on 9 September 1962 had a flameout which forced it to descend "to an altitude where PRC interceptors were able to hit the U-2 with an air-to-air rocket." This version is not supported by any other evidence, including the two substantial and semi-official PRC accounts that were published in Beijing, which make no mention of any descent. Shades of the Gary Powers shootdown mythology here!
Press the Windows logo key +PrtScn. The file is saved to the Screenshots folder in your Pictures folder. You can also us the Snipping Tool which is available in all versions of Windows Vista, 7, and 8 except the Starter and Basic editions.
I changed my permissions in my .ssh folder and now when I use a piece of software that uses my private key, I have to type my password each time. What should my permissions be on my id_rsa file to not have to type a password each time I use an app that uses it?
Aircrack-ng can recover the WEP key once enough encrypted packets have been captured with airodump-ng. This part of the aircrack-ng suite determines the WEP key using two fundamental methods. The first method is via the PTW approach (Pyshkin, Tews, Weinmann). The default cracking method is PTW. This is done in two phases. In the first phase, aircrack-ng only uses ARP packets. If the key is not found, then it uses all the packets in the capture. Please remember that not all packets can be used for the PTW method. This Tutorial: Packets Supported for the PTW Attack page provides details. An important limitation is that the PTW attack currently can only crack 40 and 104 bit WEP keys. The main advantage of the PTW approach is that very few data packets are required to crack the WEP key.
SSE2, AVX, AVX2, and AVX512 support is included to dramatically speed up WPA/WPA2 key processing. With the exception of AVX512, all other instructions are built-in Aircrack-ng, and it will automatically select the fastest available for the CPU. For non-x86 CPUs, SIMD improvements are present as well.
By using a series of statistical tests called the FMS and Korek attacks, votes are accumulated for likely keys for each key byte of the secret WEP key. Different attacks have a different number of votes associated with them since the probability of each attack yielding the right answer varies mathematically. The more votes a particular potential key value accumulates, the more likely it is to be correct. For each key byte, the screen shows the likely secret key and the number of votes it has accumulated so far. Needless to say, the secret key with the largest number of votes is most likely correct but is not guaranteed. Aircrack-ng will subsequently test the key to confirm it.
Looking at an example will hopefully make this clearer. In the screenshot above, you can see, that at key byte 0 the byte 0xAE has collected some votes, 50 in this case. So, mathematically, it is more likely that the key starts with AE than with 11 (which is second on the same line) which is almost half as possible. That explains why the more data that is available, the greater the chances that aircrack-ng will determine the secret WEP key.
However the statistical approach can only take you so far. The idea is to get into the ball park with statistics then use brute force to finish the job. Aircrack-ng uses brute force on likely keys to actually determine the secret WEP key.
This is where the fudge factor comes in. Basically the fudge factor tells aircrack-ng how broadly to brute force. It is like throwing a ball into a field then telling somebody to ball is somewhere between 0 and 10 meters (0 and 30 feet) away. Versus saying the ball is somewhere between 0 and 100 meters (0 and 300 feet) away. The 100 meter scenario will take a lot longer to search then the 10 meter one but you are more likely to find the ball with the broader search. It is a trade off between the length of time and likelihood of finding the secret WEP key.
For example, if you tell aircrack-ng to use a fudge factor 2, it takes the votes of the most possible byte, and checks all other possibilities which are at least half as possible as this one on a brute force basis. The larger the fudge factor, the more possibilities aircrack-ng will try on a brute force basis. Keep in mind, that as the fudge factor gets larger, the number of secret keys to try goes up tremendously and consequently the elapsed time also increases. Therefore with more available data, the need to brute force, which is very CPU and time intensive, can be minimized.
For cracking WEP keys, a dictionary method is also included. For WEP, you may use either the statistical method described above or the dictionary method, not both at the same time. With the dictionary method, you first create a file with either ascii or hexadecimal keys. A single file can only contain one type, not a mix of both. This is then used as input to aircrack-ng and the program tests each key to determine if it is correct.
The techniques and the approach above do not work for WPA/WPA2 pre-shared keys. The only way to crack these pre-shared keys is via a dictionary attack. This capability is also included in aircrack-ng.
With pre-shared keys, the client and access point establish keying material to be used for their communication at the outset, when the client first associates with the access point. There is a four-way handshake between the client and access point. airodump-ng can capture this four-way handshake. Using input from a provided word list (dictionary), aircrack-ng duplicates the four-way handshake to determine if a particular entry in the word list matches the results the four-way handshake. If it does, then the pre-shared key has been successfully identified.
It should be noted that this process is very computationally intensive and so in practice, very long or unusual pre-shared keys are unlikely to be determined. A good quality word list will give you the best results. Another approach is to use a tool like john the ripper to generate password guesses which are in turn fed into aircrack-ng.
You can specify multiple input files (either in .cap or .ivs format) or use file name wildcarding. See Other Tips for examples. Also, you can run both airodump-ng and aircrack-ng at the same time: aircrack-ng will auto-update when new IVs are available.
Next, we look at cracking WEP with a dictionary. In order to do this, we need dictionary files with ascii or hexadecimal keys to try. Remember, a single file can only have ascii or hexadecimal keys in it, not both.
When running aircrack-ng, it will load the fastest optimization based on what your CPU supports. For package maintainers, it is very useful as they don't have to target the one supporting all the CPU which would be the slowest.
It will create and/or update a session file saving the current status of the cracking (every 10 minutes) as well as all the options used, wordlists and capture files used. Multiple wordlists can be used and it works with WEP and WPA.
The overriding technique is capture as much data as possible. That is the single most important task. The number of initialization vectors (IVs) that you need to determine the WEP key varies dramatically by key length and access point. Typically you need 250,000 or more unique IVs for 64 bit keys and 1.5 million or more for 128 bit keys. Clearly a lot more for longer key bit lengths. Then there is luck. There will be times that the WEP key can be determined with as few as 50,000 IVs although this is rare. Conversely, there will be times when you will need mulitple millions of IVs to crack the WEP key. The number of IVs is extremely hard to predict since some access points are very good at eliminating IVs that lead the WEP key.
While aircrack-ng is running, you mostly just see the beginning of the key. Although the secret WEP key is unknown at this point, there may be clues to speed things up. If the key bytes have a fairly large number of votes, then they are likely 99.5% correct. So lets look at what you can do with these clues.
If the bytes (likely secret keys) are for example: 75:47:99:22:50 then it is quite obvious, that the whole key may consist only of numbers, like the first 5 bytes. So it MAY improve your cracking speed to use the -t option only when trying such keys. See Wikipedia Binary Coded Decimal for a description of what characters -t looks for.
As you have seen, if there are multiple networks in your files you need to select which one you want to crack. Instead of manually doing a selection, you can specify which network you want by essid or bssid on the command line. This is done with the -e or -b parameters.
There will be times when key bytes will have negative values for votes. As part of the statistical analysis, there are safeguards built in which subtract votes for false positives. The idea is to cause the results to be more accurate. When you get a lot of negative votes, something is wrong. Typically this means you are trying to crack a dynamic key such as WPA/WPA2 or the WEP key changed while you were capturing the data. Remember, WPA/WPA2 can only be cracked via a dictionary technique. If the WEP key has changed, you will need to start gathering new data and start over again. 2b1af7f3a8