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There are number of programs, tools, and utilities which you can use to examine the status of your system. This chapter introduces some and describes their most important and frequently used parameters.
Apart from the utilities presented in the following, SUSE Linux Enterprise Server also contains supportconfig, a tool to create reports about the system such as: current kernel version, hardware, installed packages, partition setup and much more. These reports are used to provide the SUSE support with needed information in case a support ticket is created. However, they can also be analyzed for known issues to help resolve problems faster. For this purpose, SUSE Linux Enterprise Server provides both an appliance and a command line tool for Supportconfig Analysis (SCA). See Chapter 40, Gathering System Information for Support for details.
While most Linux system monitoring tools monitor only a single aspect of the system, there are a few tools with a broader scope. To get an overview and find out which part of the system to examine further, use these tools first.
Amount of data (KB) that is moved from swap to RAM (si) or from RAM to swap (so) per second. High so values over a long period of time may indicate that an application is leaking memory and the leaked memory is being swapped out. High si values over a long period of time could mean that an application that was inactive for a very long time is now active again. Combined high si and so values for prolonged periods of time are evidence of swap thrashing and may indicate that more RAM needs to be installed in the system because there is not enough memory to hold the working set size.
Number of blocks per second received from a block device (for example, a disk read). Note that swapping also impacts the values shown here. The block size may vary between file systems but can be determined using the stat utility. If throughput data is required then iostat may be used.
If "wa" time is non-zero, it indicates throughput lost because of waiting for I/O. This may be inevitable, for example, if a file is being read for the first time, background writeback cannot keep up, and so on. It can also be an indicator for a hardware bottleneck (network or hard disk). Lastly, it can indicate a potential for tuning the virtual memory manager (refer to Chapter 14, Tuning the Memory Management Subsystem).
dstat is a replacement for tools such as vmstat, iostat, netstat, or ifstat. dstat displays information about the system resources in real time. For example, you can compare disk usage in combination with interrupts from the IDE controller, or compare network bandwidth with the disk throughput (in the same interval).
All options and parameters are optional. Without any parameter, dstat displays statistics about CPU (-c, --cpu), disk (-d, --disk), network (-n, --net), paging (-g, --page), and the interrupts and context switches of the system (-y, --sys); it refreshes the output every second ad infinitum:
sar can generate extensive reports on almost all important system activities, among them CPU, memory, IRQ usage, IO, or networking. It can also generate reports on the fly. sar gathers all their data from the /proc file system.
To generate reports on the fly, call sar with an interval (seconds) and a count. To generate reports from files specify a file name with the option -f instead of interval and count. If file name, interval and count are not specified, sar attempts to generate a report from /var/log/sa/saDD, where DD stands for the current day. This is the default location to where sadc (the system activity data collector) writes its data. Query multiple files with multiple -f options.
%iowait displays the percentage of time that the CPU was idle while waiting for an I/O request. If this value is significantly higher than zero over a longer time, there is a bottleneck in the I/O system (network or hard disk). If the %idle value is zero over a longer time, your CPU is working at capacity.
Whether there is a subset of CPUs that are nearly fully utilized even if the system is lightly loaded overall. Few hot CPUs can indicate that the workload is not parallelized and could benefit from executing on a machine with a smaller number of faster processors.
If you need to see what load a particular task applies to your system, use pidstat command. It prints activity of every selected task or all tasks managed by Linux kernel if no task is specified. You can also set the number of reports to be displayed and the time interval between them.
udevadm monitor listens to the kernel uevents and events sent out by a udev rule and prints the device path (DEVPATH) of the event to the console. This is a sequence of events while connecting a USB memory stick:
Use /proc/meminfo to get more detailed information on memory usage than with free. Actually free uses some data from this file. See an example output from a 64-bit system below. Note that it slightly differs on 32-bit systems because of different memory management:
Amount of memory that is backed by the mlock system call. mlock allows processes to define which part of physical RAM their virtual memory should be mapped to. However, mlock does not guarantee this placement.
Exactly determining how much memory a certain process is consuming is not possible with standard tools like top or ps. Use the smaps subsystem, introduced in kernel 2.6.14, if you need exact data. It can be found at /proc/PID/smaps and shows you the number of clean and dirty memory pages the process with the ID PID is using at that time. It differentiates between shared and private memory, so you can see how much memory the process is using without including memory shared with other processes. For more information see /usr/src/linux/Documentation/filesystems/proc.txt (requires the package kernel-source to be installed).
ip is a powerful tool to set up and control network interfaces. You can also use it to quickly view basic statistics about network interfaces of the system. For example, whether the interface is up or how many errors, dropped packets, or packet collisions there are.
It can be useful to determine what processes or users are currently accessing certain files. Suppose, for example, you want to unmount a file system mounted at /mnt. umount returns "device is busy." The command fuser can then be used to determine what processes are accessing the device:
Following termination of the less process, which was running on another terminal, the file system can successfully be unmounted. When used with -k option, fuser will terminate processes accessing the file as well.
Suppose we want to collect and view information about the memory usage in the Linux system as it changes in time. To make the example more vivid, we measure the currently free memory over a period of 40 seconds in 4-second intervals. Three applications that usually consume a lot of system memory are started and closed: the Firefox Web browser, the Evolution e-mail client, and the Eclipse development framework.
JD Edwards EnterpriseOne Performance Monitor helps system administrators monitor JD Edwards EnterpriseOne performance data and, if wanted, share the data with third-party monitoring tools. JD Edwards EnterpriseOne Performance Monitor is a diagnostic utility for monitoring the performance of the main elements of your JD Edwards EnterpriseOne system, such as web servers, application servers, and process scheduler servers. You can monitor real-time performance and analyze historical data.
JD Edwards EnterpriseOne Performance Monitor agents reside on each main element of the monitored system. Agents run on the servers to gather and report performance information. An agent is a small piece of code operating from within an existing process. It collects performance data and uses a dedicated thread to send the data to the monitoring system. Agent threads report data to the monitoring system's monitor servlet, which in turn reports performance data to the PSPPMSRV server processes in the monitoring system's application server.
This database is installed with the installation of the JD Edwards EnterpriseOne system. This database has all the tables to store performance data for EnterpriseOne. The default installation installs both JD Edwards EnterpriseOne application tables and JD Edwards EnterpriseOne Performance Monitor tables within the same database. JD Edwards EnterpriseOne users can use the Object Configuration Management (OCM) settings to use a separate database for Performance Data. Separating performance data and production data into separate databases should enhance the performance of the JD Edwards EnterpriseOne Servers. 2b1af7f3a8