There are many types of vertebral joints, but the atlas and axis form the only craniovertebral joints in the body. A craniovertebral joint is exactly what it sounds like: a joint that permits movement between the vertebral column and the skull.
As interactive multimedia and tablets are developed, 3D atlas applications are invented as new learning materials for the study of gross anatomy. 3D atlas applications are tablet-based software that enables medical students to touch and rotate virtual bodies and understand the spatial relationships. Nowadays, there are students who utilize 3D atlas applications as well as two-dimensional (2D) atlas apps, such as Netter's atlas of human anatomy and Grant's atlas of anatomy. There is the possibility of utilizing 3D atlas applications as effective learning materials for the study of gross anatomy.
Anatomy and Embryology I, II, and III consist of lectures and cadaveric dissection mainly on macroscopic anatomy. Students taking the courses were encouraged to study independently using any anatomy atlas of their preference to prepare for exam. Six exams including written tests and cadaveric tests were conducted to evaluate each student's understanding of human anatomy.
Interview questions posed to target students included which kind of anatomy atlas each student prefers during individual study, the reason for preference, how they utilize 3D atlas, and their thoughts on the effectiveness of 3D atlas. The interview questions are shown in the Appendix 1.
First-year students in 2018 were also asked to participate in an extra open-book quiz on anatomy, on June 11, 2018, when most of the anatomy classes are over. Students were allowed to choose and refer to any atlas they were familiar with (between 2D and 3D atlas) during the quiz. Questions for the quiz were set by professor Jung-A Shin of the Department of Anatomy, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine. The questions consisted of nine simple questions, which could be solved by referring to a single page of an anatomy atlas, and six complex questions, which required reference to several pages of an anatomy atlas to be solved. Sample questions are shown in the Appendix 1.
Among the 120 students who used 3D atlas, 99 students (82.5%) found 3D atlas to be easier to use than 2D atlas when searching for unfamiliar structures of the human body. Students who found 3D atlas to be more helpful than 2D atlas when understanding 3D structures of the human body were 108 (90%). Eighty-seven students (72.5%) answered that 3D atlas was convenient to use overall. However, only 51 students (42.5%) agreed that 3D atlas would be able to substitute 2D atlas entirely in next 10 years.
In this study, researchers asked the first-year students in year 2017 and 2018 at a single medical school through questionnaires about their use of 3D atlas, frequency of use, reason for use, etc., and compared their grades on the anatomy test, which consisted of both written and practical tests.
The students who responded that they used 3D atlas constituted 77.42% of the total number of respondents. Most of the students who used the 3D atlas apps responded that it was helpful in understanding anatomical structures and convenient to use. However, only 42.5% of the students who used 3D atlas agreed that it would be able to substitute 2D atlas entirely in next 10 years. This result is consistent with the findings of Tam et al. (2009)  who have already reported that there is insufficient evidence to show that computer resources can truly replace traditional methods of teaching anatomy. The results indicate that students have a positive attitude towards 3D atlas, but it is hard for the 3D atlas apps to completely replace the 2D ones. Based on the above results, rather than using only 3D atlas, the appropriate use of the 3D atlas as an adjunct to the 2D will make it easier for students to approach anatomy.
The result of comparing and analyzing the grades on the anatomy test showed that the average value of the group that used the 3D atlas apps was lower than that of the group that did not in both the written and cadaveric tests. Nevertheless, the difference was not statistically significant. In addition, there was no significant relationship between the frequency of 3D atlas use and grade (data not shown). In the anatomy open book test conducted in the first year in 2018, the average result of the group that used 3D atlas was higher only in the simple questions, and the result was statistically significant.
Our results did show that on the simple questions of the open book test, the mean score of the 3D atlas user group was significantly higher than that of the 2D atlas user group. From the results above, it can be concluded that 3D atlas can aid in the quick identification of anatomical structures, although it is not as powerful as 2D atlas in acquiring deep anatomical knowledge or memorizing the location of anatomical structures. In other words, it would be difficult for 3D atlas to completely replace 2D atlas in the next 10 years, though 3D atlas is thought to be of additional benefit in finding anatomical structures when there is a fundamental understanding of anatomy. Taking together the results of this article that 82.5% of the students thought the use of 3D atlas is easier to find unknown structures than 2D atlas, 90% of the students thought 3D atlas is more helpful when understanding the 3D structure of the human body than 2D atlas, and 72.5% of the students reported that 3D atlas was convenient to use overall, researchers can assume that 3D atlas will have a good synergy with 2D atlas if used properly in anatomy education. Besides, with the study by Murakami et al. (2014)  who found that using 3D models yielded strongly positive student perspectives and significant improvements in radiology skills in later clinical courses, it is thought that 3D atlas may be helpful for reading various radiological data by quickly matching anatomical structures in the medical field, especially when the use of magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography is more important.
As highlighted in this study, the majority of students are positive about 3D atlas, and 3D atlas is more useful than 2D atlas for matching simple anatomical structures. In addition, as highlighted in the article by Lewis et al. (2014) , 3D atlas has a number of advantages such as portability and accessibility. Although these are merits, there are entry barriers to the additional use of 3D atlas in anatomy education. Students who did not use 3D atlas said that the reason for not using it was mainly the absence of a smart device, functional inconvenience, and the high price of software applications. If there is adequate guidance on how to use 3D atlas, the functional inconvenience will be easily resolved. What really matters are that the initial cost of purchasing anatomical applications and smart devices is so expensive that many students cannot afford to buy them. Therefore, in order that 3D atlas can be effectively used for anatomy training, these infrastructure problems must be resolved by affiliating schools with application or device providers and providing the needed devices to students.
The advantage of this work is essentially based on the fact that the entire contouring work and therefore the entire 3D vector reconstruction of the typical cervical vertebra, was carried out using real sections of the human body. This results in a major increase in the precision and reliability inherent in the results presented above.
Our 3D vector modeling of the typical cervical vertebra constitutes a remarkable educational tool for teaching the anatomy of the typical cervical vertebra and can also be used as a 3D atlas for simulation purposes for training in therapeutic gestures.
The NLM Visible Human Project has created publicly-available complete, anatomically detailed, three-dimensional representations of a human male body and a human female body. Specifically, the VHP provides a public-domain library of cross-sectional cryosection, CT, and MRI images obtained from one male cadaver and one female cadaver. The Visible Man data set was publicly released in 1994 and the Visible Woman in 1995.
The data sets were designed to serve as (1) a reference for the study of human anatomy, (2) public-domain data for testing medical imaging algorithms, and (3) a test bed and model for the construction of network-accessible image libraries. The VHP data sets have been applied to a wide range of educational, diagnostic, treatment planning, virtual reality, artistic, mathematical, and industrial uses. About 4,000 licensees from 66 countries were authorized to access the datasets. As of 2019, a license is no longer required to access the VHP datasets.
Please note that the reconstructions were based on images of the same patient that allows the user to compare imaging in slices with 3D imaging of the human brain. In addition, some of the reconstructions were minimally retouched using Adobe Photoshop in order to improve their didactic value and to remove certain artifacts, but no structure of any kind was added artificially (thus, for example, the cranial nerves are only visible on the brainstem images). For more complete diagrams, we would recommend the module on brain anatomy in illustrations.
IMAIOS is a company which aims to assist and train human and animal practitioners. Serving healthcare professionals through interactive anatomy atlases, medical imaging, collaborative database of clinical cases, online courses... 2b1af7f3a8